of course, northrop frye published fearful symmetry in 1947.
see also: "it is right," he declares, "that the first effort of critical apprehension should take the form of a rhetorical or structural analysis of a work of art. but a purely structural approach has the same limitation in criticism that it has in biology." that is, it doesn't develop "any explanation of how the structure came to be what it was and what its nearest relatives are. structural analysis brings rhetoric back to criticism, but we need a new poetics as well . . ." (archetypes 1447).
"carnival is the past millennia's way of sensing the world as one great communal performance" (mikhail bakhtin, whom, it's no surprise to learn, michael holquist has written extensively on)
contemporary scholars including frye classify the following works as menippean satires:
* françois rabelais, gargantua and pantagruel (1564)
* john barclay, euphormionis satyricon (1605)
* joseph hall, mundus alter et idem (1605)
* robert burton, the anatomy of melancholy (1621)
* jonathan swift, a tale of a tub (1704) and gulliver's travels (1726)
* voltaire, candide (1759)
* thomas love peacock, nightmare abbey (1818)
* thomas carlyle, sartor resartus (1834)
* charles kingsley, the water-babies (1863)
* lewis carroll, alice's adventures in wonderland (1865)
* aldous huxley, point counter point (1928)
* flann o'brien, at swim-two-birds (1939)
* thomas pynchon, gravity's rainbow (1976)
as a type of discourse, "menippean” signifies a mixed, often discontinuous way of writing that draws upon distinct, multiple traditions. it is normally highly intellectual and typically embodies an idea, an ideology or a mind-set in the figure of a grotesque, even disgusting, comic character.
i would add a confederacy of dunces (1980) to the list.